The undreamt-of breakthrough of molecular biology has made the problem of the origin of life a greater riddle than it was before:
Page 3 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The National Academies Press. But the processes by which planets, stars, galaxies, and the universe form and change over time are also types of "evolution.
In the late s the American astronomer Edwin Hubble made a very interesting and important discovery. Hubble made observations that he interpreted as showing that distant stars and galaxies are receding from Earth in every direction. Moreover, the velocities of recession increase in proportion with distance, a discovery that has been confirmed by numerous and repeated measurements since Hubble's time.
The implication of these findings is that the universe is expanding. Hubble's hypothesis of an expanding universe leads to certain deductions.
One is that the universe was more condensed at a previous time. From this deduction came the suggestion that all the currently observed matter and energy in the universe were initially condensed in a very small and infinitely hot mass.
A huge explosion, known as the Big Bang, then sent matter and energy expanding in all directions. Page 4 Share Cite Suggested Citation: One such deduction was that the temperature in deep space today should be several degrees above absolute zero. Observations showed this deduction to be correct.
In fact, the Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer COBE satellite launched in confirmed that the background radiation field has exactly the spectrum predicted by a Big Bang origin for the universe. As the universe expanded, according to Theories origin universe scientific understanding, matter collected into clouds that began to condense and rotate, forming the forerunners of galaxies.
Within galaxies, including our own Milky Way galaxy, changes in pressure caused gas and dust to form distinct clouds.
Time. Time is what we use a clock to measure. Information about time tells us the durations of events, and when they occur, and which events happen before which others, so time has a very significant role in the universe's organization. What the Bible Actually Says About The Origin of the Universe Sam A. Smith, M.A., M.A., M.A. Biblical Reader Communications [HOME] A Brief History of Biblical Cosmology. One of the very interesting areas of biblical studies is creation. beleifs about origins of life, the Earth, and the rest of the universe, including theory of evolution and creation science.
In some of these clouds, where there was sufficient mass and the right forces, gravitational attraction caused the cloud to collapse. If the mass of material in the cloud was sufficiently compressed, nuclear reactions began and a star was born.
Some proportion of stars, including our sun, formed in the middle of a flattened spinning disk of material. In the case of our sun, the gas and dust within this disk collided and aggregated into small grains, and the grains formed into larger bodies called planetesimals "very small planets"some of which reached diameters of several hundred kilometers.
In successive stages these planetesimals coalesced into the nine planets and their numerous satellites. The rocky planets, including Earth, were near the sun, and the gaseous planets were in more distant orbits.
The ages of the universe, our galaxy, the solar system, and Earth can be estimated using modem scientific methods. The age of the universe can be derived from the observed relationship between the velocities of and the distances separating the galaxies.
The velocities of distant galaxies can be measured very accurately, but the measurement of distances is more uncertain. Over the past few decades, measurements of the Hubble expansion have led to estimated ages for the universe of between 7 billion and 20 billion years, with the most recent and best measurements within the range of 10 billion to 15 billion years.
A disk of dust and gas, appearing as a dark band in this Hubble Space Telescope photograph, bisects a glowing nebula around a very young star in the constellation Taurus. Similar disks can be seen around other nearby stars and are thought to provide the raw material for planets.
The age of the Milky Way galaxy has been calculated in two ways. One involves studying the observed stages of evolution of different-sized stars in globular clusters. Globular clusters occur in a faint halo surrounding the center of the Galaxy, with each cluster containing from a hundred thousand to a million stars.
The very low amounts of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium in these stars indicate that they must have formed early in the history of the Galaxy, before large amounts of heavy elements were created inside the initial generations of stars and later distributed into the interstellar medium through supernova explosions the Big Bang itself created primarily hydrogen and helium atoms.
Estimates of the ages of the stars in globular clusters fall within the range of 11 billion to 16 billion years. A second method for estimating the age of our galaxy is based on the present abundances of several long-lived radioactive elements in the solar system.
Their abundances are set by their rates of production and distribution through exploding Page 5 Share Cite Suggested Citation: According to these calculations, the age of our galaxy is between 9 billion and 16 billion years.
Thus, both ways of estimating the age of the Milky Way galaxy agree with each other, and they also are consistent with the independently derived estimate for the age of the universe. Radioactive elements occurring naturally in rocks and minerals also provide a means of estimating the age of the solar system and Earth.
Several of these elements decay with half lives between million and more than billion years the half life of an element is the time it takes for half of the element to decay radioactively into another element.
Using these time-keepers, it is calculated that meteorites, which are fragments of asteroids, formed between 4. The same radioactive time-keepers applied to the three oldest lunar samples returned to Earth by the Apollo astronauts yield ages between 4.
The oldest known rocks on Earth occur in northwestern Canada 3. In Western Australia, zircon crystals encased within younger rocks have ages as old as 4.
The best estimates of Earth's age are obtained by calculating the time required for development of the observed lead isotopes in Earth's oldest lead ores.beleifs about origins of life, the Earth, and the rest of the universe, including theory of evolution and creation science.
Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate. Cosmology as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed us to.
Francis Crick himself has become much less enthusiastic about the RNA world than Watson. In , he and another eminent researcher into the origin of life, Leslie E.
Orgel, published a paper advocating the theory called "Directed Panspermia".In , Crick published Life Itself, a whole book about that grupobittia.com by he says, "It may turn out that we will eventually be able to see how.
Apr 11, · One of the most fascinating things about the universe is how little we really know. And just like we want to know what happens when we die, science has asked how the universe will end for as long as man has been able to think about such concepts.
The truly fascinating thing is just how many theories. The Origin of the Universe, Earth, and Life The term "evolution" usually refers to the biological evolution of living things.
But the processes by which planets, stars, galaxies, and the universe form and change over time are also types of "evolution.". General information on religion Some theories on the origins of religion.
Sponsored link. Groups of theories on the origin of religion: There are two broad groups of theories about the origin of religion.