All modern states are nation-states which require integration of its people both territorially and emotionally. It refers to social and political integration within a nation-state. Ordinarily, it implies the process of becoming a whole along with the maintenance of cultural distinctiveness.
Overview[ edit ] Regional integration has been defined as the process through which independent national states "voluntarily mingle, merge and mix with their neighbors so as to lose the factual attributes of sovereignty while acquiring new techniques for resolving conflicts among themselves.
The degree of integration depends upon the willingness and commitment of independent sovereign states to share their sovereignty. The deep integration that focuses on regulating the business environment in a more general sense is faced with many difficulties.
This new global political structure made obsolete the classical Westphalian concept of a system of sovereign states to conceptualize world politics.
The two processes deeply affect the stability of the Westphalian state system, thus contributing to both disorder and a new global order.
This is claimed to spur greater efficiency, productivity gain and competitivenessnot just by lowering border barriers, but by reducing other costs and risks of trade and investment. Bilateral and sub-regional trading arrangements have been advocated by governments as economic development tools, as they been designed to promote economic deregulation.
Such agreements have also aimed to reduce the risk of reversion towards protectionismlocking in reforms already made and encouraging further structural adjustment. Some claim the desire for closer integration is usually related to a larger desire for opening nation states to the outside world, or that regional economic cooperation is pursued as a means of promoting development through greater efficiency, rather than as a means of disadvantaging others.
There is no conclusive evidence to suggest that the strategies of economic deregulation or increased investor protection implemented as forms Strategies by the government for unity and national integration regional integration have succeeded in contributing to "progress" in sustainable economic growth, as the number of economic crises around the world has increased in frequency and intensity over the past decades.
Also, there is increasing evidence that the forms of regional integration employed by nation states have actually worsened social inequality and diminished democratic accountability.
It has achieved a new meaning and new significance. Regional integration arrangements are mainly the outcome of necessity felt by nation-states to integrate their economies in order to achieve rapid economic development, decrease conflict, and build mutual trusts between the integrated units.
Some have argued that the idea of the state and its sovereignty has been made irrelevant by processes that are taking place at both the global and local level. Walter Lippmann believes that "the true constituent members of the international order of the future are communities of states.
Carr shares Lippmann view about the rise of regionalism and regional arrangements and commented that "the concept of sovereignty is likely to become in the future even more blurred and indistinct than it is at present.
As fundamental to the multi-faceted process of globalization, regional integration has been a major development in the international relations of recent years.
As such, Regional Integration Agreements has gained high importance. Not only are almost all the industrial nations part of such agreements, but also a huge number of developing nations too are a part of at least one, and in cases, more than one such agreement.
The removal of the trade barriers or liberalization of many economies has had multiple impacts, in some cases increasing Gross domestic product GDPbut also resulting in greater global inequality, concentration of wealth and an increasing frequency and intensity of economic crises.
The number of agreements agreed under the rules of the GATT and the WTO and signed in each year has dramatically increased since the s.
There were agreements ratified in and it contained 94 agreements form the early s. The top three major changes were the following: Deep Integration Recognition Closed regionalism to open model Advent of trade blocs Deep Integration Recognition[ edit ] Deep Integration Recognition analyses the aspect that effective integration is a much broader aspect, surpassing the idea that reducing tariffs, quotas and barriers will provide effective solutions.
Rather, it recognizes the concept that additional barriers tend to segment the markets.
That impedes the free flow of goods and services, along with ideas and investments. Hence, it is now recognized that the current framework of traditional trade policies are not adequate enough to tackle these barriers. However, in the light of the modern context, that debate is being propounded into the clauses of different regional integration agreements arising out of increase in international trade.
Closed regionalism to open model[ edit ] The change from a system of closed regionalism to a more open model had arisen out of the fact that the section of trading blocs that were created among the developing countries during the s and s were based on certain specific models such as those of import substitution as well as regional agreements coupled with the prevalence generally high external trade barriers.
The positive aspects of such shifting is that there has been some restructuring of certain old agreements. The agreements tend to be more forward in their outward approach as well as show commitment in trying to advance international trade and commerce instead to trying to put a cap on it by way of strict control.
The concept of equal partners grew out of the concept of providing reinforcement to the economies to all the member countries. The various countries then agree upon the fact that they will help economies to maintain the balance of trade between and prohibit the entry of other countries in their trade process.
Another vibrant example would entail as to how EU has formed linkages incorporating the transition economies of Eastern Europe through the Europe Agreements. It has signed agreements with the majority of Mediterranean countries by highly developing the EU-Turkey customs union and a Mediterranean policy.
The European Free Trade Association is a free trade bloc of four countries Iceland, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Norway which operates in parallel and is linked to the European Union.
The AFTA started in full swing in Development of Core Values for National Integration in Nigeria. 1D.A.
Falade (Ph.D), 2M. Falade problems that have impeded national integration and unity. National integration is one of the un-accomplished desires in Nigeria. Ifeanaccho and Nwagwu, () observed that Nigeria‟s efforts at achieving national government and the extent.
government efforts to foster national unity Since independence top-down approach has been commonly used by the government to foster national unit y in Malaysia.
Apr 12, · Topic 9 integration and national unity 1. BASICS OF INTEGRATION AND NATIONAL UNITY Unity is a process of unification in all aspects such as physical, social, economics and political. Apr 12, · TOPIC 9 INTEGRATION AND NATIONAL UNITY The existence of the National Culture Policy is based on three main principles: (i) The Culture of the Original Inhabitants of the Malay Region The Malay region encompasses Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Thailand, Cambodia and the South Pacific Islands and is the main site of Malay.
The first National Integration Council of India in , while declaring its objectives has expressed the scope of National Integration as a psychological and educational process involving the development of a feeling of unity, solidarity and cohesion in the hearts of the people and also a sense of common citizenship and a feeling of loyalty to the Nation.
Feb 02, · What strategy can the government use in plural society to establish unity and create national integration? Should the world abolish national borders to create a world government and integration?
Can you help me create a strategy to remember how Status: Resolved.