Overview[ edit ] The Metaphysics is considered to be one of the greatest philosophical works.
He wrote a great deal; a lot of it is lost to us; what we have is primarily aside from some letters a series of dialogues, twenty-odd dialogues, and he wrote in that form in order to reproduce and perpetuate the conversational method of his master.
Now Plato, to do him credit in advance, is undoubtedly one of the two most influential philosophers of all time the other being Aristotle. And this is an achievement not to be underestimated. He himself, however, drew metaphysical conclusions from this that Socrates, as far as we can tell, did not.
Now I want to follow Plato here step by step because this is the most crucial part of his philosophy. Well, if universals must be knowable, we can conclude one thing right away—they must actually exist, they must be real—because Parmenides has made it perfectly clear that thou canst not know what is not.
And therefore, if universals are knowable, they must be real, they must exist. Which raises the question: Where do they exist? How do they exist? Now for Plato, this is a grave problem. And since I have to get you to see a problem to understand Plato, let me tell you what is probably on your mind.
You probably think like this—you say universals exist in particulars. You would say of course, manness is not something over and above individual men, as though you have Tom, Dick and Harry, etc. Now Plato says no, this is wrong, not true.
He is proposing to argue that universals and particulars have radically different characteristics, and therefore must in logic be radically different kinds of things. But his method here is like this—how do you know that Smith and Jones are two different people? Well, Plato proposes to do exactly that with universals and particulars.
Universals versus particulars Well how do these differ?
How do universals and particulars differ? And there are four points at least that Plato makes. How many particulars are there in a given class? How many men, for instance?
Well, says Plato, obviously one.Well, to sum up then Plato’s metaphysics—there is a World of Forms presided over by the Form of the Good, all of it reflected into space, thereby generating this half-real reflection that we call the physical world, and if we’re not Platonists, we mistakenly call it reality.
Apr 28, · Plato's is a scalar ontology, the lower steps or hyposthases being subservient to, or dependent on, the higher ones - like the 5 koshas of Vedanta, the 5 levels in Sufism, and dharmakaya at the top of Buddhist ontology – all of them non-dual metaphysics. Well, to sum up then Plato’s metaphysics—there is a World of Forms presided over by the Form of the Good, all of it reflected into space, thereby generating this half-real reflection that we call the physical world, and if we’re not Platonists, we mistakenly call it reality.
Plato's Middle Period Metaphysics and Epistemology First published Mon Jun 9, ; substantive revision Mon Jul 14, Students of Plato and other ancient philosophers divide philosophy into three parts: Ethics, Epistemology and Metaphysics.
The Allegory of the Cave, or Plato's Cave, was presented by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work Republic (a–a) to compare "the effect of education (παιδεία) and the lack of it on our nature". Plato's allegory of the cave is one of the best-known, most insightful attempts to explain the nature of reality.
The cave represents the state of most human beings, and the tale of a dramatic.