June 09, A whole range of American goods, from motorbikes and jeans to peanut butter and orange juice, will now face higher taxes when sold in the European Union zone.
Configuration management Concurrent engineering workflow[ edit ] Concurrent engineering British English: Although this does not necessarily reduce the amount of manpower required for a project, as more changes are required due to the incomplete and changing information, it does drastically reduce lead times and thus time to market.
Feature-based CAD systems have for many years allowed the simultaneous work on 3D solid model and the 2D drawing by means of two separate files, with the drawing looking at the data in the model; when the model changes the drawing will associatively update.
Some CAD packages also allow associative copying of geometry between files. This allows, for example, the copying of a part design into the files used by the tooling designer.
The manufacturing engineer can then start work on tools before the final design freeze; when a design changes size or shape the tool geometry will then update. Concurrent engineering also has the added benefit of providing better and more immediate communication between departments, reducing the chance of costly, late design changes.
It adopts a problem prevention method as compared to the problem solving and re-designing method of traditional sequential engineering. Bottom—up design[ edit ] Bottom—up design CAD-centric occurs where the definition of 3D models of a product starts with the construction of individual components.
These are then virtually brought together in sub-assemblies of more than one level until the full product is digitally defined.
This is sometimes known as the "review structure" which shows what the product will look like. Bottom—up design tends to focus on the capabilities of available real-world physical technology, implementing those solutions which this technology is most suited to. When these bottom—up solutions have real-world value, bottom—up design can be much more efficient than top—down design.
The risk of bottom—up design is that it very efficiently provides solutions to low-value problems. The focus of bottom—up design is "what can we most efficiently do with this technology?
A top level spec is repeatedly decomposed into lower level structures and specifications, until the physical implementation layer is reached. The risk of a top—down design is that it may not take advantage of more efficient applications of current physical technology, due to excessive layers of lower-level abstraction due to following an abstraction path which does not efficiently fit available components e.
The positive value of top—down design is that it preserves a focus on the optimum solution requirements. A part-centric top—down design may eliminate some of the risks of top—down design. This starts with a layout model, often a simple 2D sketch defining basic sizes and some major defining parameters, which may include some Industrial design elements.
Geometry from this is associatively copied down to the next level, which represents different subsystems of the product. The geometry in the sub-systems is then used to define more detail in levels below.
Depending on the complexity of the product, a number of levels of this assembly are created until the basic definition of components can be identified, such as position and principal dimensions.
This information is then associatively copied to component files. In these files the components are detailed; this is where the classic bottom—up assembly starts. The top—down assembly is sometime known as a "control structure".
If a single file is used to define the layout and parameters for the review structure it is often known as a skeleton file.
Defense engineering traditionally develops the product structure from the top down. The system engineering process  prescribes a functional decomposition of requirements and then physical allocation of product structure to the functions. This top down approach would normally have lower levels of the product structure developed from CAD data as a bottom—up structure or design.
Both-ends-against-the-middle design[ edit ] Both-ends-against-the-middle BEATM design is a design process that endeavors to combine the best features of top—down design, and bottom—up design into one process.
A BEATM design process flow may begin with an emergent technology which suggests solutions which may have value, or it may begin with a top—down view of an important problem which needs a solution.
In either case the key attribute of BEATM design methodology is to immediately focus at both ends of the design process flow: The BEATM design process proceeds from both ends in search of an optimum merging somewhere between the top—down requirements, and bottom—up efficient implementation.
Indeed, some of the best success stories from either top—down or bottom—up have been successful because of an intuitive, yet unconscious use of the BEATM methodology. Front loading design and workflow[ edit ] Front loading is taking top—down design to the next stage.
The complete control structure and review structure, as well as downstream data such as drawings, tooling development and CAM models, are constructed before the product has been defined or a project kick-off has been authorized. These assemblies of files constitute a template from which a family of products can be constructed.
When the decision has been made to go with a new product, the parameters of the product are entered into the template model and all the associated data is updated. Obviously predefined associative models will not be able to predict all possibilities and will require additional work.
A lot of knowledge is built into these templates to be reused on new products. This does require additional resources "up front" but can drastically reduce the time between project kick-off and launch. Such methods do however require organizational changes, as considerable engineering efforts are moved into "offline" development departments.Lifecycle of a Soccer Ball Author: EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Subject: Large format poster and activity sheet that teaches students the various stages in the life of a soccer ball and their environmental consequences.
Created Date. LIFECYCLE OF A FOOTBALL Jimmy Leibengood B1 Materials A modern football is made out of an inflatable rubber bladder on the inside, covered by cowhide or some other kind of leather.
Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for. The escalating trade wars will hurt economic growth worldwide. The growth of an industry's sales over time is used to chart the life cycle.
The distinct stages of an industry life cycle are: introduction, growth, maturity, and decline. Get the latest slate of VH1 Shows! Visit grupobittia.com to get the latest full episodes, bonus clips, cast interviews, and exclusive videos.