Background[ edit ] The concept of a technological innovation system was introduced as part of a wider theoretical school, called the innovation system approach. The central idea behind this approach is that determinants of technological change are not only to be found in individual firms or in research institutes, but also in a broad societal structure in which firms, as well as knowledge institutes, are embedded.
Briefly, there are a number of intersecting debates about MOOCs.
And if we see innovation not as something that has happened, but as something we want to continue to happen, this may be the most important question of all.
The traditional answer, says von Hippel, is that product industries "suppliers" are the innovators. In this view a company comes across a set of "sad users", finds what their problems are, and designs via research and development a solution.
But is that really how things happen? Since the s von Hippel has been looking at the history of "transforming" innovations in various industries. A great example of such a transforming innovation is the center pivot irrigation system, considered by many to be on par with the invention of the tractor in the history of agricultural technology: Before the center pivot system, farmers had to draw water from a single well and then pipe that water throughout the farm.
The fundamental insight of the system was that instead of piping the water all over the farm with the resulting leakage you could drop a well in the center of a section of crops, and then use a gigantic rotating sprinkler to irrigate a large section of crops from that well. What von Hippel points out is that major innovations like these almost always come not from suppliers, but from "lead users", a set of highly motivated and skilled users for whom the current technology or practice is restrictive.
The Valley Corporation then came in later and perfected it, allowing it to work more flawlessly, with less user intervention. They perfected it and prepared it for mass adoption.
But the innovation was not theirs. What smart companies do, for the most part, is not "innovate" but find what "lead users" are hacking together and figure out how to make that simpler for the general population to tap into. The term was coined by Jim Groom in a conversation with Brian Lamb and subsequently extrapolated on by a number of edubloggers, eventually hitting the New York Times if I remember correctly as a word of the year.
What some may not remember is that the coining of the term was a reaction to the announcement of Blackboard that they were moving to a Learning 2. Lead users like Jim had gone out and done their own thing, hacking together syndication feeds, wikis, and modded themes into a workable replacement for a learning management system that did far better at meeting the emerging needs of the open classroom.
And when it was looking like they were out of Blackboard for good, Blackboard came up with this system of blogs and other "2. Corporations are selling us back our ideas, innovations, and visions for an exorbitant price.
I want them all back, and I want them now! But for me the piece that resonated -- and still resonates -- is the disturbing vision of an educational-technology-complex that is aligned against the communities of innovators that it supposedly serves.
To the farmer coming up with an irrigation plan the range of devices and options available to her are just as much building blocks in an overall design as is the Blackboard gradebook or discussion forum. And as with other industries, most of the practice that Blackboard codifies and the rudimentary architecture to support it was developed outside of Blackboard by user innovators.
People have termed this approach "a war on teachers". The Sources of Educational Innovation Once we see the question "What is the source of educational innovation?
In fact, the answer an individual has to that question is probably highly predictive of what technologies they favor. The current breed of xMOOCs emerged as a fluid hacking together of different educational elements in places like Stanford.
In this environment, teachers using the system were encouraged to extend and supplement the product through both technological and pedagogical innovation. They are, in the words of von Hippel, " user innovation toolkits " which encourage users to alter, and even subvert, given designs.
You can look at either of these paradigms, and ask which one is more innovative, or which one fits with your model of education. We can ask which framework is more effective or more suited to various local conditions. But the key question for administrators and policy makers is not just which system is more effective today, but which framework will continue to grow and adapt in the future.
And on this question the historical record is fairly clear -- open frameworks which allow lead users to hack are the systems that will produce long-term gains.Analysis of sources of innovation, technological innovation capabilities, and performance: An empirical study of Hong Kong manufacturing industries The main feature of this system is the ability of the actors to generate, diffuse, and utilize innovations that have economic value, collectively known as the firm's technological innovation.
The sources of innovation. Includes index. 1. Technological innovations-Economic aspects. I. Title. The Functional Source of Innovation 3 Variations in the Source of Innovation 4 variable usefully well and to predict the sources of innovation usefully often.
The technological platform in which one teaches makes a difference of course, but it goes without saying that it’s not the only, or perhaps, the core source of innovation in the classroom.
One can teach in novel ways and ‘hack education’ whether one is in Blackboard, Sakai, Instructure, or resurrecting an edu punk ethos through A Domain. May 29, · It may slip our notice, but technological innovation is often reducible to an innovation in the marketing and conceptualization of technology.
While there are undoubtedly many technological. Is Technological Innovation The Main Source Of All Economic Development And Change How Might Differing Research And Development Systems Influence The Performance Of Major Nations Assessment of Effect of Training and Development on Workers Performance in Nigerian Port Authority, Lagos.
TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONTechnological innovation has been a leading agent of social change, worldwide, since the late s, serving as the conduit into society of developments in science and technology. Source for information on Technological Innovation: Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics dictionary.