Please share with all of your adult friends. Together, we can make a difference in the world. Despite worldwide outcry and repeated efforts by animal activists to put an end to the Yulin Dog Eating Festival, a yearly tradition in Yulin, Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region of China, the festival, deeply rooted in ancient Chinese tradition, will begin June 21, Yulin residents cherish the annual summer solstice celebration, which involves the mass torture, slaughter, and consumption of about 10, dogs.
First Council of Lyons — A. Council Fathers - A. Already in Pope Gregory IX had tried to define the questions between the two powers by calling a general council, but Frederick II by arms had prevented the council from meeting.
When Innocent IV succeeded as pope in he gave his earnest attention to renewing this policy. He was able to make his way in to Lyons, which was outside the direct authority of the emperor, and there proclaimed a council.
Some letters of summons exist, dated 3 January and the days following, in which the purpose of the council is stated thus: When the council opened on 26 Junein a meeting which was probably only preparatory, there were present three patriarchs and about bishops besides other religious and secular persons, among whom was the Latin emperor of Constantinople.
Many bishops and prelates were unable to attend the council because they had been prevented by the invasions of the Tartars in the east or the attacks of the Saracens in the holy Land, or because Frederick II had intimidated them especially the Sicilians and Germans.
Thus it was that the four chief parties of the council were the French and probably the Spanish, English and Italian. In the three sessions which were held during the council 26 June, 5 and 17 July the fathers, not without hesitation and dispute, had to treat especially of Frederick II.
There seems to have been a bitter conflict between Innocent IV on the one side and Thaddaeus of Suessa on the other. The sources, especially the Brevis nota and Matthew Paris, tell Innocent have i been tortured innocent clearly about the nature of the discussion and the determined attitude of the pope, who induced the council to depose the emperor at the session on 17 Julya matter that appeared unprecedented to the fathers themselves.
The council on this question shows us clearly the critical position reached by the medieval theory and practice of ruling a christian state, which rested on a double order of authority. In the same session of 17 July the council also approved some strictly legal constitutions and others on usury, the Tartars and the Latin east.
But the council, unlike the previous councils of the Middle Ages, did not approve canons concerning the reform of the church and the condemnation of heresy. Enthusiasm for the Gregorian reform movement seems to have died down completely.
The council, however, concerned itself with promoting and confirming the general canonical legislation for religious life. The transmission of the text of the constitutions is involved and still partly obscure. Only in recent times has it been realised that the authentic and definitive drawing up of the constitutions, and their promulgation, took place after the council.
This collection consists of 22 constitutions, all of which are of a legal nature, and was sent to the universities by Innocent IV on 25 August Coll. A final collection Coll. IIIand was included except for const. I, however, is not identical with the constitutions of the council.
For in it can be found neither the condemnation of Frederick II, which seems to have been the chief matter of the council, nor the five constitutions pertaining to the important questions introduced by Innocent IV at the opening of the council, namely those concerned with the Tartars, the Latin east and the crusades.
Stephen Kuttner has shown that the constitutions have been transmitted to us through three versions: Icontaining two constitutions 18 and 22 which are absent from the other versions, but lacking the constitutions not directly concerned with the law R Indeed, the origins of the constitutions must be placed before the council, as is shown by an earlier version of constitutions M 13, 15 and 19, antedating the council.
Evidently the council fathers were discussing matters which had already been partly worked out, and it was somewhat later that the constitutions acquired their more accurate and definite legal form.
All later editions followed Rm. Boehmer and Msi 2 afterwards in Msi 23 printed Coll.
I, as such, has never been edited; but there exists both an indirect transmission Coll. III, Liber Sextus and a direct, single-family transmission through eight manuscript codices: Our edition of the constitutions tries to give all the documents truly belonging to the council.
I has been taken as the base, and variants from M and R are set out in the critical apparatus.
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The text of Coll. I has been established from codices I and W, which we have seen in microfilm. With regard to M, the edition of H. Luard has been used. With regard to R, we have examined directly the register of Innocent IV. We think, moreover, that the last five constitutions in R17 is also in M and Annales de Burton should also be included among the constitutions of the council, even though they were not included in Coil.
We have printed the text of these five constitutions from the register of Innocent IV;as regards const. We think that the bull of deposition of the emperor Frederick II must be considered a statute of the council, and we place this in front of the constitutions.Millions of innocent men, women and children, since the introduction of Christianity, have been burnt, tortured, fined and imprisoned; yet we have not advanced one inch towards uniformity.
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