Philippines[ edit ] CS tear gas was used in suppression of the mutiny in Makati that was led by Sen.
The result of the use of less-than-lethal force is a product of a chance gathering of variables at a certain point in time. Consequently, the officer's grip strength, hold, movement, technique or lack thereofetc.
Agencies cannot write specific policy concerning what "feels like" enough strength. The officer must ultimately justify more performance elements with the use of less-than-lethal force than with the use of lethal force.
Due to the complexity, experienced officers may have a general "feeling" or sense of the correct type and amount of force, but this sense is vague and undefined. The faceless quality of less-than-lethal force predictably leads to confusion and bad decisions either ineffective force or unnecessary forcein emergency circumstances.
The officer may very well be surprised when these actions are later found to be inappropriate. The officer may be unable to adequately explain actions taken.
The fact remains, however, that officers must be able to clearly justify all actions in which they use force no matter how complex the variables. Some variables are subtle and go unnamed except by specialized trainers or professors.
Since the use of purely physical control is highly dependent on personal variables that the officer brings to the situation, great disparity can occur because officers are not at all equal in this respect.
Use of force is often thought of and described in unspecific terms or in sports terminology. Unlike the planned format of certain sports such as baseball and football where offensive and defensive modes are separate, use of force situations are generally not as clearly defined strictly in terms of offense and defense.
The application of physical force is more probably like the sport of boxing, in which a participant can: Control is the ability to command or direct with or without voluntary compliance. Substitute the idea that the officer will control with the subject's consent, if possible, but force the subject to comply, if necessary.
One school of thought uses the premise that the role of law enforcement is essentially defensive. What, however, is defensive about using force on a subject who resists being moved or attempts to escape?
Much attention has been devoted to the quandary about shooting fleeing felons, until the landmark United States Supreme Court Tennessee v. In order to categorize these "offensively oriented" control situations as "defensive," one must expand the meaning of defensive to imply that chasing a suspect is, in the broader sense of the word, "defending" society in general.
The somewhat irrelevant and artificial concepts of offense and defense do nothing to help an officer respond in an urgent situation requiring action.
The officer needs a clarification of murky issues, not ideological pronouncements. Officers should not have to rethink these definitions during each emergency, but they should be provided with clear internal guidelines, a statement of purpose, and a principled philosophy as embodied in the concept of "control.
In the military sense, assault is "the final stage of an attack that includes close combat with the enemy. When added together, "to protect" and "to compel," the basic reasons for justifiable use of force become "to control. Therefore, the officer may use force to:The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) is an expert organisation working to reduce the impact of mines, cluster munitions and other explosive hazards in the world, in close partnership with states, the UN and other human security actors.
The Biblical View of Self-Defense Introduction. This study examines the Biblical view of self-defense. We're looking at questions such as, Is it right to employ lethal force to protect the life of yourself and others?
Kevin MacDonald is Professor of Psychology, California State University (Long Beach), and the author of A People That Shall Dwell Alone (), Separation and Its Discontents (), and The Culture of Critique (), all published by Praeger.
Other Materials. Some other materials of special interest for nuclear weapons use are listed below. Beryllium (Be) Beryllium, element 4, is named after the mineral beryl, which is a natural ore (beryllium aluminum silicate, Be3Al2(SiO3)6, aquamarine and emerald are .
Other Materials. Some other materials of special interest for nuclear weapons use are listed below. Beryllium (Be) Beryllium, element 4, is named after the mineral beryl, which is a natural ore (beryllium aluminum silicate, Be3Al2(SiO3)6, aquamarine and emerald are precious forms of this mineral).
Any Star Trek fan can tell you that when it comes to the most bang for your buck, you can't beat antimatter (sometimes called "Contra-terrene" or "Seetee").How much bang?
Well, in theory if you mix one gram of matter with one gram of antimatter you should get e14 joules of .